Charcoal blast furnace

Prof. Luiz Fernando Andrade De Castro

Metallurgical and Materials Engng Dept.


Review of blast furnace history

Iron: The first contact = Meteoric Iron

Fire » Blaze (Charcoal + Iron Ore) » Metal

100 B.C Loup Furnaces

100 B.C. Loup Furnaces

800 A.D Small Furnace
(1 KG Fe = 2 a 2,5Kg Iron Ore + 4Kg CHARCOAL)

800 A.D Small Furnace

11th TO 15th Century: Catalan Forge

Catalan Forge Picture 1

Catalan Forge Picture 2

1340 germany: Hochofen
(The first production of hot metal)


17th Century: Blast Furnace with Water Wheel
Production = 1 Ton/Day

(Ore, Forest and River – Water Wheel)

Blast Furnace with Water Wheel

1708/1709: Coke blast furnace – 1st Hot Metal
(desulfurization = 1784)
1780: Steam Blowing Engines
1828: 1st Hot Blast
1832: 1st Capture of Blast Furnace Top Gas
1857: Cowper
1950: Burden Temperature Profile (KITAEV – Russia)
1960: Thermochemical Model (IRSID – France)
1970: Blast Furnaces Dissection (Japan)

Review of blast furnace history – brazil

1884: 1st Blast Furnace – Usina Esperança – ITABIRITO
1925: Belgo-Mineira: 1st South America Integrated Plant
1937: Belgo-mineira (João Monlevade-Minas Gerais): The largest charcoal integrated plantIn the world, 1st Eucalyptus Reforestation
1970: Increase in the number of Charcoal Blast Furnaces in Minas Gerais

Process description

Charcoal Blast Furnace Process description 1

Charcoal Blast Furnace Process description 2

Pictures of Charcoal Blast Furnace Plants

Picture of Charcoal Blast Furnace Plant

Charcoal Blast Furnace Top (Charging)

Charcoal Blast Furnace Top Charging

General view

Charcoal Blast Furnace Plant General

Hot metal casting

Hot Metal Casting

Charcoal blast furnace versus coke blast furnace

Characteristics OF Charcoal and Coke

Charcoal blast furnace versus coke blast furnace

Compression Strength: Coke higher than Charcoal

Down ArrowCoke BF can be large or small – Largest Charcoal BF = 1200 Ton/Day

Down ArrowLarge BF requires prepared metallic burden: Sinter or Pellet

Coke Sulfur content is high

Down ArrowSlag Granulation: SOx

Hot Metal Sulfur content is high

Charcoal volatile matter is high

Down ArrowHeating capacity of charcoal bf top gas is high

Down ArrowThe regenetator stoves of charcoal blast furnace(glendons) are simple and less expensive

Final remarks

Charcoal blast furnace is different from coke blast furnace

Charcoal blast furnace cannot be large

Charcoal blast furnace requires lower investment than cokeBlast furnace